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Several commercial interests and leading marine research institutions have already used the Geometrics
P-Cable™ system with great success.  More than 70 3D cubes have been acquired, providing researchers and explorationists with new insights into diverse geological problems such as fluid migration, submarine slope stability, regional and local tectonics and gas hydrate formation.  Following are just a few examples of
P-Cable data acquired in different parts of the world.

computerroom2Photo Courtesy of Fugro West, Inc.

This is a comparison of conventional 3D and
P-Cable 3D data acquired in the Norwegian Sea over the gas-bearing Peon formation. The orange reflector represents the top of the Peon.  P-Cable data were acquired by P-Cable 3D Seismic AS.  Conventional 3D data were acquired by a major seismic contractor and reprocessed to enhance resolution.

Data courtesy of Statoil

Industry3DPCableComparison

 


The comparison to the right shows not only the stark contrast between P-Cable data and reprocessed conventional 3D data, but also the significant improvement over conventional, single-streamer HiRes 2D.  The second and third examples are from the same data set.  The difference is that the middle one was processed by itself as a single 2D line.  The far right example is from the exact same location, but it is an in-line section taken from a fully-migrated 3D cube.

Unlike 2D, full 3D migration allows out-of-plane reflections to be put back where they belong, instead of contaminating the 2D section and reducing frequency content and resolution.  So with the P-Cable, you don't just get more data for the money, you don’t just get true 3D data, you get better data. 

Data courtesy of Statoil

 

 

 

 

Industry3D2DPCableComparison

 

 

Looking down at the amplitude variance map of the top of the Peon formation further illuminates the difference in resolution. The P-Cable data show a much higher degree of detail, revealing iceberg plough marks that are virtually invisible in the conventional 3D data.  The proposed location of GP3, based on the conventional data, is shown by the P-Cable data to be in a deep ice-gouge feature, a potentially hazardous place to put a well.  These data illustrate one of the key benefits of acquiring high-resolution 3D in oil and gas field development.  Even in a conventional high-resolution 2D hazard survey, features such as this would be extremely difficult to map.

Survey parameters: Twenty-four 8-channel streamers @ 6.25m spacing, 3.125m group interval.  Bin size 1.5625 x 3.125m.

Data courtesy of Statoil

 

TopofPeon

 

 

Seismic imaging in the Barents Sea and other Arctic environments is often difficult due to very rough seabed conditions and strong reflections within the shallow glacial sediments. However, excellent data have been acquired with the P‐Cable system in these areas, showing a great amount of detail from the seabed down to the reservoir level. The seabed (1) is characterized by numerous iceberg plough marks up to 15 meters deep.  Reflective horizons within the glacial package (2), along with the regional angular unconformity (3), which separates the Plio‐Pleistocene glacial sediments from the westward-dipping Paleogene sediments, also have plough marks and erosional features. Preferential migration of gas along bedding planes illuminates bedding strike at the unconformity.  The rather rough surface of the top of free-gas (4) is also mapped in great detail.

Data courtesy of University of Tromsø

 

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Note the quality of bathymetry data obtainable by the P-Cable. While we would not recommend general bathymetry surveying with the P-Cable, we leave it to you to decide whether you can leave the multibeam at home when doing P-Cable work.

 

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This in-line slice from the Barents Sea shows free-gas trapped beneath gas hydrates. This gas represents both a hazard when drilling and a potential resource.  With the P‐Cable system, bodies of free-gas can be mapped in previously unheard-of detail to increase both safety and profit. With technology that can significantly increase offshore safety now available, there is every reason to make UHR3D the standard investigation prior to any drilling or seabed installation.

Survey parameters: Twelve 8-channel streamers @ 6.25m spacing, 3.125 m group interval.  Bin size 1.5625 x 3.125m.

Data courtesy of University of Tromsø

 

Barentsinline

 

 

 

 

The following examples are from a survey conducted for Spring Energy (now Tullow Oil) in the Barents Sea by WGP in summer 2012. This was the very first commercial oil and gas survey conducted with the P-Cable. The main objective of the survey was shallow gas exploration.

These first three figures show comparisons of standard 3D seismic with P-Cable data:

 

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This figure compares conventional HiRes 2D with the P-Cable:

 

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The data speaks for itself, although some features are worth examining.

Clinoforms identified in the T. Hekkingen formation are interpreted to indicate a prograding sequence, which has important implications for the potential presence of hydrocarbons. These features have never before been mapped at this detail.

 

Hekkingen

 

Another exciting feature visible on the P-Cable data are reflectors that cross-cut stratigraphy. These “flat spots” are interpreted to be indicative of fluid contacts: oil/gas or gas/water. Direct detection of hydrocarbons has always been the Holy Grail of seismic exploration, and the P-Cable, combined with other technologies, is making important contributions toward achieving this.  These are the first P-Cable data processed with TGS’s Clari-FiTM broadband processing technology. More on this topic here.

 

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This animated GIF shows successive slices into a P-Cable data cube from the Barents Sea.

 

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An extensive UHR3D seismic survey was undertaken in 2011 and 2012 by Fugro West for Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) to better define the Shoreline fault zone and to image buried channels that could be used to determine offsets along both the Shoreline and the Hosgri fault zones. This investigation builds upon previous seismic reflection investigations of the Shoreline fault zone in areas defined by seismicity in the vicinity of PG&E’s Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP).  Following are some examples of some of the P-Cable data acquired in the survey.  All figures courtesy of Pacific Gas and Electric. 

The complete report can be found here.

The processed data may be downloaded here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Smoothed similarity time-slice showing paleochannels and faults in bedrock.

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Perspective view showing bedrock topography and faults.

 

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Close-up of bedrock showing offset paleo shoreline.

 

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Bedrock time-slice showing stream channels and faults.

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Vertical slice showing nested channels. Total two-way time ~150 msec.

 

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A joint venture of WGP Survey and TGS-NOPEC acquired over 500 km2 of P-Cable data as part of a large multi-client shallow oil and gas survey in the Barents Sea during the 2014 season.  Following are some examples of the data acquired.  All figures courtesy of WGP and TGS.


 

Hoop Basin Fault Complex.  Note flat spots at ~810 msec on either end of the section, and at ~850 msec in the center.  For more discussion, see article here.

 

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This animation compares P-Cable data to conventional 3D data that have been reprocessed to maximize resolution.  It is clearly evident that reprocessing data optimized for deeper exploration does not come close to the resolution provided by the P-Cable.

 

AnimatedHiRestoPCable


During the 2014 season, NCS Subsea conducted a large-scale multi-client geohazard survey in the Gulf of Mexico as part of their SAFEBAND project.  Some of the data from that survey are discussed below.
 

 

 

Overview profile illustrating the geological complexity of the mid-slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Features of particular interest are framed in red.

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Successive faulting and graben features forming an intra-slope/collapse basin over the top of a salt feature. Note the small, discrete gas anomaly at around 1.130 second TWT.

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Highly-resolved upper horizon of a shallow mass transport deposit. Note the apparent fold/creep features.

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High-flux fluid expulsion feature with subsurface wipeout and divergent reflector along the flanks of the high-relief mound indicative of fluidized sediment release.

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Large free-gas anomaly below a relatively thick gas hydrate formation.

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Large free-gas anomaly almost breaching the seafloor. Here, almost certainly, gas hydrate is outcropping at the seafloor. This feature could be interpreted as a potential catastrophic collapse hazard.

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Collapse feature (near trace 55200) resultant of, perhaps catastrophic, loss of pore pressure due to episodic gas/fluid expulsion.

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Dip of maximum similarity attribute slice highlighting shallow faulting, gas chimney geometry and subtle aspects of downslope sediment transport.

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Interpreted seafloor horizon (over the top of a salt feature) revealing numerous aspects of the seafloor geomorphology. Of particular relevance, note the presence of fault scarps, mounds, collapse features, and subtle drainage features.

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Prograding sequence in the Early Cretaceous. Blue shading indicates Jurassic sediments beneath basal Cretaceous Unconformity.

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Preceding data flattened on basal Cretaceous Unconformity, revealing steeper foreset beds (red) within the boundaries of several individual prograding sequences (yellow). This is an important revelation because the steeper beds indicate a higher-energy environment, increasing the likelihood of the presence of coarser-grained reservoir rock. These features are invisible on conventional 3D data.

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Time-slice revealing channel features in the Late Triassic Snadd Formation.

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Amplitude anomalies (in yellow box), especially apparent in P-Cable data. Believed to represent free-gas beneath the GHSZ. Also note the “flat spot”, a potential indicator of hydrocarbons, visible on the P-Cable data. Width of central basin is roughly 10 Km.

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Comparative frequency and resolution of conventional 3D with standard processing (top), conventional 3D with Clari-Fi processing (middle), and P-Cable 3D with Clari-Fi processing (bottom). Note that the “flat spot” unequivocal only in the P-Cable data

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Time-slice showing free-gas, a potential geohazard, focused in a lineament following the general strike of prograding Cretaceous sediments, indicating the presence of a porous layer.

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